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1. Council of the European Union, ‘EU-Turkey statement’, 18 March 2016 

This press release by the Council of the European Union reaffirms the commitment of Turkey and the European Union to the implementation of their joint action plan activated on 29 November 2015.  Further, it announces a new plan aimed at 'breaking the business model of the smugglers' and 'offering migrants an alternative to putting their lives at risk'.

2. Kaldor Centre, In focus brief on cooperation with Turkey to regulate entry to Europe

The Kaldor Centre's In Focus keeps a watching brief of particular issues of interest as they evolve. Under a broader brief of 'European approaches to irregular migration', this page focuses on EU-Turkey cooperation to regulate entry to Europe.  It provides a good background to the Joint Action Plan and the EU-Turkey deal. This page is regularly updated with subsequent developments and key resources.

3. Steve Peers, 'The final EU/Turkey refugee deal: a legal assessment’, EU Law Analysis, 18 March 2016 

Steve Peers is a Professor of EU and Human Rights Law at the University of Essex.  In this article, he provides a legal assessment of the EU-Turkey deal.

4. UNHCR, 'UNHCR redefines role in Greece as EU-Turkey deal comes into effect', 22 March 2016

In this press briefing by UNHCR spokesperson, Melissa Fleming, UNHCR expresses concern that the EU-Turkey deal is being implemented before the required safeguards are in place in Greece. 

5. European Commission, 'EU-Turkey Agreement: Questions and Answers', 19 March 2016

This Factsheet on the EU-Turkey Agreement outlines the content of the agreement and provides answers to questions about the legal basis for returns from the Greek islands to Turkey, safeguards for asylum seekers and the operational support needed to implement the scheme.

6. Catherine Woollard, Kenneth Roth, Salil Shetty, 'Say No to a Bad Deal with Turkey', 17 March 2016 

Kenneth Roth is Executive Director of Human Rights Watch, Salil Shetty is Secretary General of Amnesty International, and Catherine Woollard is Secretary General of the European Council on Refugees and Exiles.  As they explain in this article, desperation should not be confused with legality when it comes to Europe's proposed refugee deal with Turkey.  'No one should be under any illusion - the very principle of international protection for those fleeing war and persecution is at stake.'

7. Jeff Crisp, 'Protection and Pragmatism: the EU-Turkey refugee deal in historical perspective', OpenDemocracy, 21 March 2016

Jeff Crisp is a Research Associate at the University of Oxford Refugee Studies Centre and was formerly the head of UNHCR’s Policy Development and Evaluation Service. In this article, he argues that the EU-Turkey deal is simply the latest in a series of efforts by EU members to keep refugees out.



The Kaldor Centre plays a vital role in developing legal, sustainable and humane solutions for displaced people around the world.