This page contains analysis and resources on two upcoming international summits on refugees: the United Nations Summit for Refugees and Migrants on 19 September, and the Leaders’ Summit on Refugees hosted by US President Barack Obama on 20 September.
This page will be regularly updated in the lead up and aftermath of the summits.
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The Cambodia agreement
This factsheet describes the agreement between Australia and Cambodia for the relocation of refugees from Nauru to Cambodia, outlines the agreement’s main features, answers some key questions about its application, describes progress on its implementation to date, and sets out some of the international reactions to its announcement. It supplements the general factsheet on refugee protection in Cambodia, and the in focus briefs on the implementation of the Cambodia agreement, and Cambodia’s treatment of Montagnard asylum seekers from Vietnam.
Director, Regional Protection and Cooperation Project
Andrew & Renata Kaldor Centre for International Refugee Law at UNSW
- 1. Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Parliament of Australia, ‘Estimates’, Canberra, 19 October 2015, p. 84 (Michael Pezzullo)
- 2. MOU, articles 11, 12; Operational Guidelines, articles 4, 7, 15, 21, 22.
- 3. MOU, article 10(d); Operational Guidelines, articles 16 and 18.
- 4. MOU, article 10; Operational Guidelines, articles 11, 14, 19, 21, 22, 24(a).
- 5. For more information, see: Jane McAdam and Fiona Chong, Refugees: Why Seeking Asylum is Legal and Australia’s Policies are Not, UNSW Press, Sydney, 2014, pp. 66-68, 154-156.
- 6. Daniel Pye, ‘Cambodia and Australia sign refugee deal’, Al Jazeera, 26 September 2014 <http://m.aljazeera.com/story/2014926124117550180>; Paul Farrell, ‘Peter Dutton in video plea to Nauru refugees to call 'Cambodia settlement hotline'’, The Guardian, 22 April 2015, <http://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2015/apr/22/peter-dutton-in-vi....
- 7. In relation to the voluntary repatriation of asylum seekers and refugees from Nauru and Manus Island to their countries of origin, the UNHCR has repeatedly stated that a decision is voluntary only if it is “fully informed and consensual, and not prompted by uncertainty and protracted detention”. True ‘voluntariness’ will be difficult where refugees “are reduced to a psycho-social state of hopelessness and despondency”: UNHCR, UNHCR Mission to the Republic of Nauru, 3-5 December 2012, ; UNHCR, UNHCR Monitoring Visit to Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, 11-13 June 2013, . See also: UNHCR, UNHCR Monitoring Visit to the Republic of Nauru, 7 to 9 October 2013, ; UNHCR, UNHCR Monitoring Visit to Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, 23 to 25 October 2013, .
- 8. Kingdom of Cambodia, Sub-Decree No. 224 of 2009 on Procedure for Recognition as a Refugee or Providing Asylum Rights to Foreigners in the Kingdom of Cambodia, 17 December 2009 <http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d81f0172.html> article 15.
- 9. Jesuit Refugee Service, State of Migration: An Overview of Forced Displacement in Cambodia, July 2012,
<https://www.jrs.net/assets/Publications/File/StateofMigration.pdf> p. 31.
- 10. Kingdom of Cambodia, Law on Immigration, 22 September 1994 <http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b52f8.html> articles 15, 16 and 21.
- 11. Jesuit Refugee Service, State of Migration, p. 50.
- 12. Kingdom of Cambodia, Law on Nationality, 20 August 1996 <http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b5210.html> article 8.
- 13. Ibid., article 7.
- 14. MOU, article 9; Kingdom of Cambodia, Sub-Decree No. 224, article 15.
- 15. Jesuit Refugee Service, State of Migration, p. 33.
- 16. MOU, article 9; Operational Guidelines, article 23.
- 17. Refugee Convention, article 26.
- 18. Kingdom of Cambodia, Law on Immigration, article 17.
- 19. MOU, article 9; Operational Guidelines, article 19.
- 20. Operational Guidelines, articles 21 and 24(a).
- 21. Cambodia Trade Integration Strategy 2014-2018, launched by Prime Minister Hun Sen on 18 February 2014, <http://www.enhancedif.org/en/system/files/uploads/ctis_2014-2018_exec_summary.pdf> p. 67.
- 22. See, for example, U.S. Department of State, ‘Trafficking in Persons Report’, June 2014 <https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226845.pdf> pp. 120-121; Community Legal Education Center (CLEC), Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights (LICADHO), Legal Support for Children and Women (LSCW) and Human Rights Watch, ‘Universal Periodic Review, Cambodia: Joint Submission on Human Trafficking for Labor Exploitation’, Introduction and Executive Summary, 2014, http://www.licadho-cambodia.org/reports/files/188Document-UPR2013-LICADHO_CLEC_LSCW_HRW.pdf; Jesuit Refugee Service, State of Migration, pp. 90-91, 123-133.
- 23. Kingdom of Cambodia, Labor Law, 13 March 1997 <http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_150856.pdf> articles 261, 262.
- 24. Ibid., articles 263 and 264; Kingdom of Cambodia, Prakas No. 196KB/Kr.K, on Use of Foreign Workforce, 20 August 2014 <http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/96887/114701/F-420425791/KHM96887%20Eng.pdf> articles 1 and 2.
- 25. Senator Lisa Singh, ‘Cambodian Refugee Deal – Matters of Public Importance’, September 2014 <http://www.lisasingh.com.au/newsroom/758-cambodian-refugee-deal-matters-of-public-importance>; Hong Lim MP (Victoria) quoted in Michelle Innis, ‘Australia Alarms Rights Groups With Deal to Resettle Refugees in Cambodia’, The New York Times, 26 September 2014, <http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/27/world/asia/australia-alarms-rights-gro....