Each year, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees publishes detailed information on refugee applications and determinations by States Parties to the Refugee Convention. However, there are noticeable gaps in the utility and availability of these figures across jurisdictions prior to the mid-1990s, particularly with respect to Australia. This has limited our understanding of how refugee status determination functioned in Australia during the formative years of its modern refugee policy, from 1977 to the early 1980s, and it leaves researchers with little knowledge of the number and provenance of asylum-seekers coming to Australia during this time. The present article contributes to a body of literature that gauges possible political influences on the determination of protection claims.
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The Cambodia agreement
Monday, 11 April, 2016
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- 1. Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Parliament of Australia, ‘Estimates’, Canberra, 19 October 2015, p. 84 (Michael Pezzullo)
- 2. MOU, articles 11, 12; Operational Guidelines, articles 4, 7, 15, 21, 22.
- 3. MOU, article 10(d); Operational Guidelines, articles 16 and 18.
- 4. MOU, article 10; Operational Guidelines, articles 11, 14, 19, 21, 22, 24(a).
- 5. For more information, see: Jane McAdam and Fiona Chong, Refugees: Why Seeking Asylum is Legal and Australia’s Policies are Not, UNSW Press, Sydney, 2014, pp. 66-68, 154-156.
- 6. Daniel Pye, ‘Cambodia and Australia sign refugee deal’, Al Jazeera, 26 September 2014 <http://m.aljazeera.com/story/2014926124117550180>; Paul Farrell, ‘Peter Dutton in video plea to Nauru refugees to call 'Cambodia settlement hotline'’, The Guardian, 22 April 2015, <http://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2015/apr/22/peter-dutton-in-vi....
- 7. In relation to the voluntary repatriation of asylum seekers and refugees from Nauru and Manus Island to their countries of origin, the UNHCR has repeatedly stated that a decision is voluntary only if it is “fully informed and consensual, and not prompted by uncertainty and protracted detention”. True ‘voluntariness’ will be difficult where refugees “are reduced to a psycho-social state of hopelessness and despondency”: UNHCR, UNHCR Mission to the Republic of Nauru, 3-5 December 2012, ; UNHCR, UNHCR Monitoring Visit to Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, 11-13 June 2013, . See also: UNHCR, UNHCR Monitoring Visit to the Republic of Nauru, 7 to 9 October 2013, ; UNHCR, UNHCR Monitoring Visit to Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, 23 to 25 October 2013, .
- 8. Kingdom of Cambodia, Sub-Decree No. 224 of 2009 on Procedure for Recognition as a Refugee or Providing Asylum Rights to Foreigners in the Kingdom of Cambodia, 17 December 2009 <http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d81f0172.html> article 15.
- 9. Jesuit Refugee Service, State of Migration: An Overview of Forced Displacement in Cambodia, July 2012,
<https://www.jrs.net/assets/Publications/File/StateofMigration.pdf> p. 31.
- 10. Kingdom of Cambodia, Law on Immigration, 22 September 1994 <http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b52f8.html> articles 15, 16 and 21.
- 11. Jesuit Refugee Service, State of Migration, p. 50.
- 12. Kingdom of Cambodia, Law on Nationality, 20 August 1996 <http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b5210.html> article 8.
- 13. Ibid., article 7.
- 14. MOU, article 9; Kingdom of Cambodia, Sub-Decree No. 224, article 15.
- 15. Jesuit Refugee Service, State of Migration, p. 33.
- 16. MOU, article 9; Operational Guidelines, article 23.
- 17. Refugee Convention, article 26.
- 18. Kingdom of Cambodia, Law on Immigration, article 17.
- 19. MOU, article 9; Operational Guidelines, article 19.
- 20. Operational Guidelines, articles 21 and 24(a).
- 21. Cambodia Trade Integration Strategy 2014-2018, launched by Prime Minister Hun Sen on 18 February 2014, <http://www.enhancedif.org/en/system/files/uploads/ctis_2014-2018_exec_summary.pdf> p. 67.
- 22. See, for example, U.S. Department of State, ‘Trafficking in Persons Report’, June 2014 <http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226845.pdf> pp. 120-121; Community Legal Education Center (CLEC), Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights (LICADHO), Legal Support for Children and Women (LSCW) and Human Rights Watch, ‘Universal Periodic Review, Cambodia: Joint Submission on Human Trafficking for Labor Exploitation’, Introduction and Executive Summary, 2014, http://www.licadho-cambodia.org/reports/files/188Document-UPR2013-LICADHO_CLEC_LSCW_HRW.pdf; Jesuit Refugee Service, State of Migration, pp. 90-91, 123-133.
- 23. Kingdom of Cambodia, Labor Law, 13 March 1997 <http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_150856.pdf> articles 261, 262.
- 24. Ibid., articles 263 and 264; Kingdom of Cambodia, Prakas No. 196KB/Kr.K, on Use of Foreign Workforce, 20 August 2014 <http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/96887/114701/F-420425791/KHM96887%20Eng.pdf> articles 1 and 2.
- 25. Senator Lisa Singh, ‘Cambodian Refugee Deal – Matters of Public Importance’, September 2014 <http://www.lisasingh.com.au/newsroom/758-cambodian-refugee-deal-matters-of-public-importance>; Hong Lim MP (Victoria) quoted in Michelle Innis, ‘Australia Alarms Rights Groups With Deal to Resettle Refugees in Cambodia’, The New York Times, 26 September 2014, <http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/27/world/asia/australia-alarms-rights-gro....